Type 1 diabetes (often abbreviated T1D) is a condition where a person’s body is no longer able to make its own insulin. This leaves a person’s body unable to use the sugar in the bloodstream.
Type 2 diabetes is an entirely different disease. Because so many more people have type 2 diabetes, when most people mention diabetes, they mean type 2.
The usual treatment for type 1 diabetes is insulin. The insulin can be injected or come through an insulin pump. The amount of insulin has to match with the number of carbohydrates (carbs) in the food eaten. This is where carb counting comes in. The person with diabetes (or a caretaker for a small child) adds up the carbs in food eaten at each meal.
The American Diabetes Association has an explanation of type 1 diabetes.
The JDRF is an organization very involved in raising funds for diabetes research.
For parents caring for children with type 1 diabetes, this community can be very supportive and helpful. They have a forum for posting questions.